German Grammar – personal pronoun and verb conjugation

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German Grammar – personal pronoun and verb conjugation

Learn German | German for beginners | Personal pronoun and verb conjugations | German A1

German for beginners:- Topics included

  • Personal pronoun in German – A word that replaces the name of a person, place, thing, or idea in a sentence.
  • Verb conjugation – Who/what is performing the action? ( person )
  • If the action is done one or more? ( numbers),
  • When the action is happening ( tense )
  • Whether the action is ongoing or completed? ( aspect )
  • Whether the action is done by or to the subject? ( voice )

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Personal pronouns in German

Personal pronouns in German, known as “Personalpronomen,” play a crucial role in sentences by replacing nouns to avoid repetition. Here are the German personal pronouns in the nominative case (used for the subject of a sentence):


  1. Ich – I
  2. Du – You (informal, singular)
  3. Er – He
  4. Sie – She
  5. Es – It (for neutral nouns)

Personal pronoun and verb conjugation in German


  1. Wir – We
  2. Ihr – You (informal, plural)
  3. Sie – They (for both masculine and mixed-gender groups)
  4. Sie – You (formal, singular or plural)

Here are some example sentences using these personal pronouns:

  • Ich liebe Musik. (I love music.)
  • Du bist mein Freund. (You are my friend.)
  • Er liest ein Buch. (He is reading a book.)
  • Sie tanzt gerne. (She likes to dance.)
  • Es regnet heute. (It is raining today.)

Plural Examples:

  • Wir gehen ins Kino. (We are going to the cinema.)
  • Ihr habt Spaß. (You all are having fun.)
  • Sie sind Lehrer. (They are teachers.)
  • Sie sind sehr höflich. (You are very polite.)

In addition to the nominative case, personal pronouns in German also change in the accusative, dative, and genitive cases, depending on their role in the sentence. These changes reflect the gender, number, and case of the noun they replace. Learning these variations is important for using personal pronouns correctly in various sentence structures.

Verb conjugation in German involves changing the form of a verb to match the subject of the sentence in terms of person (first, second, or third), number (singular or plural), and tense (present, past, future, etc.). German verbs can be quite complex, and their conjugation patterns can vary based on the verb class and tense. Here’s a basic overview of verb conjugation in German:

Present Tense (Präsens):

In the present tense, the verb endings change based on the subject (I, you, he/she/it, we, you all, they). Here’s a conjugation example with the verb “sprechen” (to speak):

  • Ich spreche – I speak
  • Du sprichst – You speak (informal, singular)
  • Er/sie/es spricht – He/she/it speaks
  • Wir sprechen – We speak
  • Ihr sprecht – You speak (informal, plural)
  • Sie sprechen – They speak or You speak (formal, singular or plural)

Past Tense (Präteritum) and Perfect Tense (Perfekt):

The past tense in German can be expressed in two main ways: Präteritum and Perfekt.

  • Präteritum: This tense is used in written language and formal speech. It has its conjugation patterns for regular and irregular verbs. For example, with the verb “gehen” (to go):
    • Ich ging – I went
    • Du gingst – You went (informal, singular)
    • Er/sie/es ging – He/she/it went
    • Wir gingen – We went
    • Ihr gingt – You went (informal, plural)
    • Sie gingen – They went or You went (formal, singular or plural)
  • Perfekt: This is the more commonly used past tense in spoken German. It is formed by using an auxiliary verb (usually “haben” or “sein”) and the past participle of the main verb. For example, with “sprechen”:
    • Ich habe gesprochen – I have spoken
    • Du hast gesprochen – You have spoken (informal, singular)
    • Er/sie/es hat gesprochen – He/she/it has spoken
    • Wir haben gesprochen – We have spoken
    • Ihr habt gesprochen – You have spoken (informal, plural)
    • Sie haben gesprochen – They have spoken or You have spoken (formal, singular or plural)

Future Tense (Futur I):

The future tense in German is often expressed using the present tense of the auxiliary verb “werden” (to become) and the infinitive form of the main verb. For example, with “sprechen”:

  • Ich werde sprechen – I will speak
  • Du wirst sprechen – You will speak (informal, singular)
  • Er/sie/es wird sprechen – He/she/it will speak
  • Wir werden sprechen – We will speak
  • Ihr werdet sprechen – You will speak (informal, plural)
  • Sie werden sprechen – They will speak or You will speak (formal, singular or plural)

Imperative Mood (Befehlsform):

The imperative mood is used for giving commands or instructions. It is typically formed using the verb’s stem. For example, with “sprechen”:

  • Sprich! – Speak! (informal, singular)
  • Sprechen Sie! – Speak! (formal, singular or plural)
  • Sprecht! – Speak! (informal, plural)

These are the basics of verb conjugation in German. Keep in mind that there are strong and weak verbs, irregularities, and various tenses and moods to explore as you advance in your German language learning journey.